Introduction

Schools Mind your minority language: Welsh, Gaelic, Irish and Cornish are staging a comeback Thanks to impassioned campaigners, Welsh is in fine fettle, and other minority languages are also on the up, as Holly Williams discovers. Saturday 19 January There was the translation of my village’s road sign, so it was both in ‘English’ and Welsh: There was Wales’s exciting new building, the Millennium Stadium, known in the native tongue as Stadiwm y Mileniwm. I resented being forced to study Welsh to GCSE — if I had to do a language, couldn’t I do Italian, which would have been useful, as Italy was hot, and sexy, and a long way away…? Fast forward to , and I don’t live in Verona, but nor do I live in the Valleys it’s London, predictably. But whether it’s age or absence, my feelings towards Welsh have mellowed. I like the different perspective a rural upbringing has given me, and rather wish I was able to say more than “Wyt ti’n hoffi coffi? The actual usage of minority languages is very slow to change, but hearts and minds can be quicker.

Mind your (minority) language: Welsh, Gaelic, Irish and Cornish are staging a comeback

Body language – basics and introduction Body language is a powerful concept which successful people tend to understand well. The study and theory of body language has become popular in recent years because psychologists have been able to understand what we ‘say’ through our bodily gestures and facial expressions, so as to translate our body language, revealing its underlying feelings and attitudes.

Body Language is also referred to as ‘non-verbal communications’, and less commonly ‘non-vocal communications’. The term ‘non-verbal communications’ tends to be used in a wider sense, and all these terms are somewhat vague. For the purposes of this article, the terms ‘body language’ and ‘non-verbal communications’ are broadly interchangeable.

It’s a slightly circular argument — speaking Gaelic is only useful if people are required to provide services in Gaelic, which is likely to come about because of language campaigners — but it still marks a shift in the terms of engagement.

Country and coast are peppered with a special mix of historic sites — World Heritage fortresses and slate quarries, Celtic shrines and cultural centres. All these things have made North Wales what it is today — a unique part of the United Kingdom. Wales Slate Slates wrenched from the mountains of Snowdonia not only roofed buildings in the four corners of the world, they also formed the unique landscape that we see today across north west Wales.

Communities were created which became the hub of cultural and political life, helping to ensure the survival of the Welsh language. Discover more about the native Princes of Gwynedd at a major new flagship exhibition in Conwy Tourist Information Centre, featuring animated and explorer maps, interactive displays, Welsh poetry and music. Castles are something of a local speciality.

This is no ordinary museum. Words and music This lyrical language of ours is music to the ears.

Mind your (minority) language: Welsh, Gaelic, Irish and Cornish are staging a comeback

Newcastle Emlyn With the Normans came subjugation in the form of the motte and bailey castle earth and timber fortresses , easy and quick to construct. Hundreds of these castles were built throughout Wales and may be spotted almost everywhere minus their timber defenses. The Welsh adopted this building technique from their overlords and, like the Normans, soon recognized the advantages of buttressing their castles with stone. Welsh-built castles tend to be somewhat less overbearing and less lavishly designed, but this fact is due merely to the relative lack of fiscal resources available to the Welsh princes, as well as the unavailability of architects and other craftsmen, who were conscripted by the Normans.

Furthermore, as one source states:

Rural Wales was a stronghold of the Welsh language – and so also were the industrial slate-quarrying communities of Caernarvonshire and Merionethshire.

The history of the Welsh language Welsh Cymraeg is the oldest language in Britain dating back possibly 4, years. The majority of European languages, including Welsh, evolved from a language now called Indo-European, which developed into nine different language groups, one of which was Celtic. In turn, Celtic developed its own family of languages. Before the coming of the Roman empire, Celtic languages were spoken across Europe. Present day place names indicate the extent of their influence: The Celtic languages that survived are those that migrated from mainland Europe to the western islands of Britain and Ireland.

Labelled Insular to differentiate them from the Continental European languages, the versions of Celtic on these western islands developed into two branches. In Ireland, Goidelic – or Q-Celtic, thanks to its characteristic kw sound – became the dominant language and gave rise to Irish, Scots Gaelic and Manx. Most historians date the arrival of the Celtic language in Britain to around BC. This version of Celtic was to evolve into Brittonic or Brythonic , which in turn gave rise to Welsh, Cornish and Breton.

Body Language

This introduces an interesting but obscure chapter in history, straddling Spain and France and consequently tending to be left by treatments of Spain to French history, and by treatments of France to Spanish history. Not all of it was ultimately retained by Spain, but readily accessible sources don’t seem to show either the difference between the old and new boundaries or what happened to the rulers of Navarre after the annexation — the table at right picks up at that point.

This seems like a grave oversight for the history of France. The history of Navarre is obscure enough that I found the full genealogy only with recourse to a succession of more serious and complete sources.

These marginal notices cover a variety of subjects, but one of the longer examples — the so-called Surexit memorandum — records what would appear to be resolution of a local land dispute:

We spoke to five people from around Wales about what Welsh means to them. As we speak, in English, she keeps drifting into Welsh again to emphasise certain points, and I have to keep reminding her to speak English, for the purposes of the interview. Bethan runs Amser Babi Cymraeg Activities for Babies and Children , which offers activities for new parents, babies and young children and encourages them to grow and learn in a Welsh language environment.

After being made redundant, Bethan set up the business in July , driven by her passion to pass on the Welsh language to young people and keep it alive. My mum always taught me: Her mother was a teacher and her father was a goalkeeper. A very good one, in fact. Dai Davies, the former Wales and Swansea City number one, was playing for Everton at the time Bethan was born, so she was raised in Liverpool before moving across the border to Wales.

She is eternally grateful that she picked up Welsh from a very early age and watched the recent episode of Newsnight which sparked another row about the language. I live close to Wrexham and Welsh medium education in Wrexham is on the rise. We go shopping sometimes across the border in Chester. They get quite embarrassed. I think we need to be more patient. He had some help, mind.

Five people describe what the Welsh language means to them

The Dream of Rhonabwy c. They were not original compositions, drawing as they did on pre-existing traditional material, whether from oral or written sources. But these traditions were reworked, often to reflect contemporary concerns. We might read the Mabinogion as both an interpretation of a mythological past and a commentary on the medieval present.

The two and half centuries during which the Mabinogion texts were being composed represent a threshold of critical transition in Welsh history and literature. Here, in this little-known corner of the European Middle Ages, we find the thought-worlds of oral antiquity and literate proto-modernity face-to-face in curious proximity.

Finally, we will be looking at the manuscript tradition in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Wales:

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Visit Wales with Welsh Dragon Tours. We welcome you to experience the history of the Welsh people’s long journey through time, visiting sites dating from pre-history, the four centuries of Roman occupation, the Industrial Revolution, right up to the present day. We pride ourselves on providing comprehensive information on these web pages, to answer your questions and help you select the right tour. Please read all sections carefully before contacting us.

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History of the Welsh language

Origins[ edit ] Welsh evolved from British , the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Britons. It is not clear when Welsh became distinct. Jackson suggested that the evolution in syllabic structure and sound pattern was complete by around , and labeled the period between then and about “Primitive Welsh”.

Newly-elected AMs are waiting for their opportunity to serve – and there is always the danger they may grow impatient.

Share this article Share Some of the coins were struck during the reign of Emperor Nero, who reigned between 54 and 68 AD. It is not known how, or when, they were brought to the region, but it’s possible they may have been carried by a Roman soldier or exchanged by a trader as the currency became accepted in Britain. A year later he returned with 30, soldiers.

A granite bust is shown It is not known how, or when, the coins were brought to the region, but it’s possible they may have been carried by a Roman soldier or exchanged by a trader as the currency became accepted in Britain. The coins in the haul pre-date Roman occupation of Britain and span years of history. It is thought some coins may have been brought over during these campaigns as his army battled against tribes across the country.

Caesar wasn’t able to conquer, however, due to revolts in Gaul. He was a key ally of Emperor Julius Caesar and played a pivotal role in the growth of the Roman Empire. Some of the coins date from the rule of Emperor Nero, between 54 and 68AD. While Nero focused on enhancing cultural life in the Empire, he is known for being cruel and corrupt, having executed his mother and possibly murdered his brother. Some of the coins date from the rule of Emperor Nero, bust pictured left between 54 and 68AD.

Welsh language

Bilingual road markings near Cardiff Airport. In Welsh-speaking areas, the Welsh signage appears first. Although Welsh is a minority language, support for it grew during the second half of the 20th century, along with the rise of organisations such as the nationalist political party Plaid Cymru from and Welsh Language Society from

It is also the language of the existing Welsh law manuscripts.

It has been involved in many significant events in British military history. The museum is housed in the former Carnegie Public Library. Mon, Tues, Weds, Thurs, Fri: Mon, Tues, Thurs, Fri: Porthcawl is a vibrant modern seaside town. Over the years, through donations and loans, the Museum has amassed in excess of 8, items. Other items include military history and memorabilia from the last century, ceramics, rare local documents, thousands of local photographs, and archaeological items including the Blundell Collection.

The second largest costume collection of an Independent museum in Wales, is contained in the upstairs storerooms whilst special items from the Samtampa and Stalheim disasters and the Porthcawl Railway are a significant part of the collection. Significantly, as established by Major Harry Judge, the Commanding Officer, before his death, Porthcawl Museum is the only museum that holds the memorabilia of the 49th Reconnaissance Regiment, formed in Porthcawl in Visitors from Utrecht visit every year to pay their respects to the regiment that helped liberate their town.

It is the intention of the museum committee, to display all the items in May , to mark the 70th Anniversary of V.

Carwyn Jones stages a Welsh Government cabinet reshuffle as Carl Sargeant is suspended

The First Minister said: I am proud to announce my new Ministerial team, which provides a balance of experience and stability, with new drive and energy. This strong team will drive forward our ambitious plans for Wales — focusing on growing the Welsh economy, creating jobs, supporting our public services and improving the day-to-day lives of the people of Wales.

The history of Navarre is obscure enough that I found the full genealogy only with recourse to a succession of more serious and complete sources.

Going to & Question words (Unit 12) – Welsh Beginners (Mynediad)