Decoding the Antikythera Mechanism, the First Computer

From a distance, they look like rocks with patches of mold. Get closer, though, and the sight is stunning. Crammed inside, obscured by corrosion, are traces of technology that appear utterly modern: Nothing else like this has ever been discovered from antiquity. Nothing as sophisticated, or even close, appears again for more than a thousand years. X-ray imaging in the s and s revealed that the device must have replicated the motions of the heavens. Holding it in your hands, you could track the paths of the Sun, Moon and planets with impressive accuracy. That year, Mike Edmunds of Cardiff University in Wales and his team published CT scans of the fragments, revealing more details of the inner workings, as well as hidden inscriptions—and triggering a burst of scholarly research. The Antikythera mechanism was similar in size to a mantel clock, and bits of wood found on the fragments suggest it was housed in a wooden case.

Slide rule

Doppler Ultrasound The doppler shift principle has been used for a long time in fetal heart rate detectors. Further developments in doppler ultrasound technology in recent years have enabled a great expansion in its application in Obstetrics, particularly in the area of assessing and monitoring the well-being of the fetus, its progression in the face of intrauterine growth restriction, and the diagnosis of cardiac malformations. Doppler ultrasound is presently most widely employed in the detection of fetal cardiac pulsations and pulsations in the various fetal blood vessels.

The “Doptone” fetal pulse detector is a commonly used handheld device to detect fetal heartbeat using the same doppler principle. Blood flow characteristics in the fetal blood vessels can be assessed with Doppler ‘flow velocity waveforms’.

Fundal height CAN be used in women of size, provided some common sense is used.

History Table of Trigonometry, Cyclopaedia Trigonometry was developed for use in sailing as a navigation method used with astronomy. The common practice of measuring angles in degrees, minutes and seconds comes from the Babylonian ‘s base sixty system of numeration. The first recorded use of trigonometry came from the Hellenistic mathematician Hipparchus [2] c. Ptolemy further developed trigonometric calculations c. The ancient Sinhalese in Sri Lanka , when constructing reservoirs in the Anuradhapura kingdom, used trigonometry to calculate the gradient of the water flow.

Archeological research also provides evidence of trigonometry used in other unique hydrological structures dating back to 4 B. The Indian mathematician Aryabhata in , gave tables of half chords which are now known as sine tables, along with cosine tables. He used zya for sine, kotizya for cosine, and otkram zya for inverse sine, and also introduced the versine. Another Indian mathematician, Brahmagupta in , used an interpolation formula to compute values of sines, up to the second order of the Newton -Stirling interpolation formula.

Khayyam solved the cubic equation and found a positive root of this cubic by considering the intersection of a rectangular hyperbola and a circle. An approximate numerical solution was then found by interpolation in trigonometric tables. Detailed methods for constructing a table of sines for any angle were given by the Indian mathematician Bhaskara in , along with some sine and cosine formulae. Bhaskara also developed spherical trigonometry. The thirteenth century Persian mathematician Nasir al-Din Tusi, along with Bhaskara, was probably the first to treat trigonometry as a distinct mathematical discipline.

Chauvet Cave

However, new requirements for Bridge Day have changed everything and will likely result in few BASE jumpers attending the event. First, a little history of what has transpired recently In August , I received information that the Bridge Day Commission BDC was planning to scan every jumper, rappeller, and vendor’s fingerprints in order to participate at Bridge Day

The doctor often needs to take into account of the menstrual history, the time she had a positive pregnancy test, the intensity of the pain, physical signs, a blood count and findings on ultrasound scan.

Evolutionary significance[ edit ] It is believed that the emotion of disgust has evolved as a response to offensive foods that may cause harm to the organism. Disgust appears to be triggered by objects or people who possess attributes that signify disease. This behavioral immune system has been found to make sweeping generalizations because “it is more costly to perceive a sick person as healthy than to perceive a healthy person as sickly”.

For those especially sensitive to moral disgust, they would want to be less aggressive because they want to avoid hurting others. Those especially sensitive to pathogen disgust might be motivated by a desire to avoid the possibility of an open wound on the victim of the aggression; however, for those sensitive to sexual disgust, some sexual object must be present for them to be especially avoidant of aggression. Disgust may produce specific autonomic responses, such as reduced blood pressure, lowered heart-rate and decreased skin conductance along with changes in respiratory behaviour.

A woman expressing disgust. Taking a further look into hygiene, disgust was the strongest predictor of negative attitudes toward obese individuals. A disgust reaction to obese individuals was also connected with views of moral values. Evolution of morality Tybur, et al.

An Important Announcement from the ARDMS:

Ultrasonic Fetal Measurement Standards If we assume a fetus is growing normally, biometric measurements are determined by gestational age, and we can estimate the gestational age and thus the due date. Conditions which alter fetal growth will make the estimates less reliable. Although many embryonic and fetal structures can be measured, only a few measurements are easy and repeatable enough for widespread use.

The most common are: The first element to be measurable is the gestation sac of the early pregnancy.

When ultrasounds are done in very early pregnancy, they are usually done transvaginally.

It deduces from his brow shape that he is likely to be introverted, and he is rejected for a sales job. To many critics, this is just plain old bad science hiding beneath the veneer of mathematics — algorithms instead of men with calipers measuring noses and brows. This dystopian nightmare might not be that farfetched, some academics warn, given the rise of big data, advances in machine learning, and — most worryingly — the current rise in studies that bear a troubling resemblance to the long-abandoned pseudoscience of physiognomy, which held that the shape of the human head and face revealed character traits.

Modern computers are much better at scanning minute details in human physiology, modern advocates of such research say, and thus the inferences they draw are more reliable. Critics, on the other hand, dismiss this as bunkum. There is little evidence linking outward physical characteristics and anything like predictable behavior, they note.

And in any case, machines only learn what we teach them, and humans — rife with biases and prejudicial thinking, from the overt to the subtle and unacknowledged — are terrible teachers. Still, the research continues. The study has since been taken down, but the authors posted a response to critics here. Wu followed with another study that said machine learning could be used to infer the personality traits of women whose pictures were associated with different words — coquettish and sweet, for example, or endearing and pompous — by a group of young Chinese men.

Ultrasound: Sonogram

References “The technology of prenatal diagnosis is usually presented to us as a solution, but it brings with it problems of its own If you’ve already read it, you may want to skip ahead. All pregnant women in our technology-happy modern society face confusing choices about prenatal testing, its advantages and disadvantages, and its appropriateness for them.

Large pregnant women face even more confusion, since prenatal testing can be slightly harder in this population, and the results can be more confusing. However, since they may be at a somewhat increased risk for problems like neural tube defects, they also face greater pressure than others to have these prenatal tests, even though the tests are often difficult to interpret. It is further designed to address the special concerns that large women might have in taking these tests their fears, any special equipment or techniques that might be helpful, the controversies over interpretation of results, whether large women have a higher rate of so-called ‘false-positives’ on certain tests and why, etc.

Be assertive about your treatment, both for your own sake and for the sake of all the fat women who will follow after you, and for the sake of the new generation of children that will follow after us.

A Certain Magical Index: Within a space of roughly three seconds, she correctly identifies the history, style, and everything else about a giant rock monster that had just appeared. She later composes and sings a magical “song” that has the effect of deprogramming a living person’s mind and breaking the mental conditioning they’re under, after talking a bit with Misaka about the theory of subconscious learning through synesthesia a confirmed scientific phenomenon in the Raildex verse.

She does have , magical books stored in her head that she can draw on for data, but she still needs to be able to sort through all that information, analyze it, and determine how to use that knowledge. Espers, no matter their powers, have to calculate and know what they’re going to do, before they do it. Both Kuroko and Awaki need to calculate what they’re going to teleport and where using eleventh dimension mathematics, not three-dimensional length, width, height mathematics.

Accelerator, for all he won the Superpower Lottery , still needs to know exactly how to apply his powers in order to get what he wants, eg, if he wants to stomp his foot and create a giant shockwave of doom, he can’t just stomp and expect it to work, he has to know how to actually magnify, direct, and otherwise manipulate the force of his foot stomping the ground.

If he can’t work out the math behind an application of his powers, he can’t use it. In short, The Raildex universe is an entire world of this: During the Railgun Sports Festival arc, one of the villains manages to lead a team with few and generally weak Espers with the strongest being a single Level 3 to victory over Tokiwadai, where the only Esper below Level 3 was a Level 2 with extensive combat experience by exploiting the limitations of their powers and personal phobias.

Welcome to Ultrasound Services

You may like to take a look at charts for crown-rump length , biparietal diameter , femur length , abdominal circumference , gestational sac diameter , yolk sac diameter and intrauterine fetal weight. If you have problems understanding and calculating your due date, check out and download a copy of the Ob calculator by York Winston. Hutchon’s site and the Gestation Network also provide pregnancy calculators.

A large number of mails I received are about fetal anomalies, I have therefore tried to put together a Catalogue of Web pages which describe in some detail specific congenital anomalies that are diagnosable by ultrasound. You can visit the page here. I am pregnant for 7 weeks.

However, he is so skilled at analyzing others that he was able to convince people that his Iris was being able to tell what other people’s Irises were.

A trans-vaginal probe is used for this examination. The scan will provide the following information: Seeing the heart beating is reassuring and confirms that the baby is okay. Determination of chorionicity in twin pregnancy identical twins for example can be made early and extra surveillance of these high risk pregnancies can be organized to optimize the outcome. Ensure an intra-uterine pregnancy. It confirms that the fetus is well placed in the womb and therefore excludes an out-of-place or ectopic pregnancy.

Detection of structural abnormalities. Gross fetal abnormalities such as anencephaly fetus without a brain can be detected early in pregnancy. Determines the gestational age of the fetus. This can be made accurately by measuring the crown-rump length CRL.

How accurate is ultrasound in dating a pregnancy?-Dr. Nupur Sood